Barriers to Adult Education Assignment

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Barriers to Adult Education

Introduction
Wang et al (2016) posits that adult education is the intervention of a normal life with the specific purpose of introducing change, knowledge, and new abilities. Adult educators primarily make such interventions. Adult students are often considered to be students over the age of 25 (Falasca, 2011). They are unique in terms of what society has determined to be the “normal” age for education. Older students have different skills, different educational backgrounds, and cultural backgrounds. They are more responsible and experienced. When students graduate from high school, they are enrolled in a traditional higher education program. It can be a diploma or a postgraduate program. Older students often do not follow the traditional teaching methods.
According to Roosma and Saar (2017) education never ends because It runs from the first day to the last day of life. They debunk the societal theory that says education and learning are only in schools and universities. Older students have more responsibility, unlike high school students. Most adults are full-time employees and part-time parents. They often have many barriers to learning. These barriers can be divided into several categories. It may be a physical barrier, a face bar, or a barrier. It is a fact that older people often face challenges that they do not have to face. Other studies show that the majority of older women face many barriers, such as early pregnancy, social decline, and child care. These barriers are discussed in detail. The key to continuing higher education is to identify and overcome barriers to adult learning.
The main purpose of this work is to find out the barriers of adult learning programs. Also, I mainly focus on barriers to adult learning. In the second half of the challenge, we will try to provide some of the means to overcome or overcome adult barriers.

Literature Review
The basic feature of continuing education is to identify and overcome barriers to adult learning. Older students have a growing number of higher education. Between 1969 and 1984, the number of adults participating in the training programs increased by 78% (Wang et al., 2016). This group of students considers you to learn a great deal of work. This group of students shared a large number of students studying at educational institutions. Although the number of older people is increasing daily, there are many barriers they can learn and succeed in life.
The barriers to adult learning can be described as follows.
• Situational barriers
• Institutional barriers
• Dispositional barriers
• Academic barriers
• Employment training barriers
• Cultural barriers

Situational barriers
Situational constraints mainly occur in certain contexts. Some adults do not want to participate in learning due to poor living conditions (Flynn et al., 2011). Sometimes these situations make them eager to participate in academic sessions (Wang et al., 2016). This restriction is most applicable to a family or family situation. Adult learners have to be able to take on many responsibilities at the same time. Osam et al (2017) state that these responsibilities may be more important than going to an educational institution. These adverse conditions significantly reduce the learning and teaching opportunities for these learners.

Extreme work schedule
Most hard-working adults study to work to make a living. Due to a busy schedule at work, they may not have enough time to go to an educational institution. Occasionally, due to high living expenses, they may work with multiple income sources. Their busy schedule has no time to allocate learning. Working men and women can face this barrier.
Family and children
This barrier is particularly difficult for women. In most cases, in many places women are responsible for their families and especially their children. They need to carry their children, feed them and take them to school and other household chores. This situation is exacerbated when the couple lives alone because there are few or few people who care for their children. Osam et al (2017) state that men face the same situation not only women.
Financial problems
Many people drop out of high school due to financial constraints. That is the main reason people join the labor force to get wages. In most cases, older students do not get enough money to spend on education. This is a major concern for most adults who want to learn and most drop out of school education programs. This is one of the biggest problems that adult learners face in the Maldives.
Lack of childcare services
Nurseries help people move to work and learn when time permits. Unfortunately, this service is lacking in many developing and developing countries. For example, in the Maldives it is not difficult to have a nursery.
Transportation: This is one of the situations people can deal with. With the right travel program, people can go home and study. Unfortunately, in rural areas of the globe, the transportation system can be not very clean or it can be very expensive to move from one place to another.
In addition to the above conditions, other conditions that hinder learning are emotional or learning disabilities, lack of support from others such as family members and employers.

Institutional barriers
Institutional barriers are the inconveniences faced from the educational institutions. This difficulty may be either the design of the course, method of delivering lectures or even sometimes administrative difficulties (Falasca, 2011). Institutional barriers happen intentionally or unintentionally (Wang et al., 2011).
Some of the institutional barriers include:
The difficulty of paying tuition fees: Some institutions are too strict to pay tuition fees. In such institutions, payment dates are fixed or tuition fees are very limited. Due to lack of funds and time, older students may face many barriers to paying tuition fees.
Contradicts faced due to poor planning of these programs: There are situations where institutions often offer permanent programs to students. This will be a big problem for older students because they work to make a living. Adult students are not allowed to participate in full-time programs.
There is no course that meets the needs of students. This is another obstacle faced by students. The number of courses available at accessible institutions may be very small. There is no comprehensive type of program available. This will make adult learners stand out.
Lack of proper qualification for admission: This is also another issue that adults and learners often face. Older students are more involved in work skills programs, so they must quit now. Most adult learners will not want to go back and study as an indigenous student in order to get enough certification to participate in the program they enjoy.
Venue: The location of the educational institution also plays an important role in adult participation in the learning process. In most cases, educational institutions are located in developed regions. This only benefits people who live in the area. Looking at the Maldives, almost all senior citizens in the atoll are dealing with this problem because almost all higher education institutions are in Male. Even if they want to learn, they can’t get enough for the space.

Dispositional barriers
Classification barriers are linked to specific or personal factors that impede adult learning. This barrier is mainly related to the student’s learning attitude. Many adult learners have poor reading skills. This may be due to age and / or small effects obtained in previous studies. Of course, most people have a negative attitude towards future learning if they do not have a positive impact on the formal education system. This affects the mental aspects of learning. Age is also an important waste factor that can be described as waste. People may think they are old enough to join an educational institution. They may ignore the fact that “learning is a lifelong process”. Students may become sick and cannot sigh. Health problems have emerged in our study as a major barrier to students and potential students (Peter Bates and Jane Aston, 2004). Due to the busy schedule of adults, they may not have enough time to go to an educational institution. Older people are full-time workers, full-time parents, and when they join education, they become full-time students. Not everyone can read this schedule in their life. Personal issues such as work, childcare and family are more important than reading. There is another problem that some adults think is “no separate education is necessary”. This can be due to peer pressure or peer pressure. In the end, some of those who have just graduated from high school may get a good job by paying the right wages. This may prevent them from returning to study. In addition, poor language skills and lack of reading comprehension are factors that affect adult learning.
Education barriers
This barrier includes skills needed for future learning. This barrier may include a lack of language skills that are essential to the learning process. This feature is really useful for accessing all kinds of information. How can I learn if learners do not have access to information? It is also important to be able to play with numbers. Yes, they all understand mathematics (if they can read it). But statistical skills are important for further research. Today is knowledge time. All work is done using the Internet and a computer. Therefore, the basic skills of information technology are very important. Insufficient computer and IT skills put a burden on some older students. If a person cannot read and write in childhood and adolescence, it remains a barrier to them, even if they want to receive higher education.
This is a workplace barrier. This includes non-employer support for older students. In addition, employers offer a wide selection of educated staff by providing / sending seminars, workshops, and / or other training programs. In most cases, poorly educated workers are left behind. Often, at work, women have fewer choices than men when choosing a training program. This can create bad things to learn about women. Immigrants have less choice than the field of training programs. Most employers will think that training women and low-educated people does not bring great economic benefits to employers.

Cultural and socioeconomic barriers
Cultural barriers are mainly cultural barriers. In some cultures, women believe that women should not work or study at a higher level. The belief that girls should get married when they are young will almost certainly stop them from attending higher education. The socio-economic status of the community also plays an important role for adult learners. As mentioned above, in some places people get married early and get pregnant soon. This is a major obstacle for older people, especially women. In addition, large families, worsening economic conditions and unemployment are obstacles to adult learning.

Overcoming barriers to Adult Learning
Helping adult learners overcome obstacles is not easy and in some cases impossible. The barrier that the old student’s face cannot be resolved overnight. Osam et al (2017) postulate that to overcome barriers, students need long-term support and the work environment needs to change. In addition, institutions need to change management and curriculum issues. Older students and employers need to have a closer relationship. These relationships allow employers to help students learn about and create a better environment for them. They can provide a little more time, and can provide research breaks for older students. This encourages participation in the learning process.
The center needs to be more flexible and understanding. Institutions need to know that older students care about working people and families and cannot be compared to regular students. Traditional policies and strict rules do not apply to adult learners. The rules and regulations need to be flexible enough to suit the needs of adult learners. They need more help than ordinary students. Learner flexibility for older students involves developing flexible policies that are timely, flexible and flexible to students, so that older students can work and work.
As mentioned earlier, democracy is a major barrier for adult learners to participate in the learning process. To overcome this, the introduction of distance education through technological advancement can be better used. Therefore, busy adult learners do not have to be present on a campus campus. “Long-distance learning is the best way to educate older students because they need flexibility to be able to address their competitive priorities” (Galusha, Jill M, 1998). They are at home and can read on their own. In addition, you can communicate with the technologist through the appropriate facility established by the center. This reduces travel restrictions. This solves the problems of adult learner attendance. “Adults who study online have a higher GPA than their peers” (Screyer Institute for Teaching Excellence, 2007).
The lack of knowledge about the educational opportunities available to adult learners is a major threat to them. This threat should be prevented so that adult learners can participate in the selected programs. To do so, you will need to select the right ad in the right format. If all the information is available on the Internet, many people may not be able to access it. In addition, employers can play an important role in disseminating information. Staff notices do more than we think.
Restrictions within the workplace should be protected by applying rules and regulations. Employers may arrange to release some of their employers from the workplace to attend classes. In addition, a training program should be designed to benefit all personnel needed.
In addition, you can do the following things to overcome barriers:
A media campaign that recognizes and promotes adult learning using a variety of media. More focus on breaking down cultural barriers.
• Institutions that can improve the flexibility of adult learners, such as night classes and learning time travel programs.
Improved childcare services so that students can spend their time at work and in the classroom.
Provide financial support to adult learners using low interest rate tuition, paid leave, or tuition allowances.
• Older students will accept being busy students who have decided to participate in the program. Celebrate their courage and their willingness to challenge.

Methodology
This section outlines the procedures that were taken by the researcher in carrying out this study. The methodology is the way of searching or solving the research problem (Flick, 2015). These include the research design, data collection instruments, data collection procedures, ethical issues, description of the study sample, the quality of the data and the analysis and interpretation of the data.
The research approach is important as it aids to enhance the reliability of findings or the basis of theory. Quinlan et al (2019) characterized them into two which are quantitative and qualitative data gathering tools. Quantitative gathering tools depend on numbers and are partially supported by words in gathering data; examples comprise of questionnaires, observations and official figures like census whilst qualitative data gathering tools predominantly utilize words in gathering data, with examples including diaries, interviews and focus groups (Kumar, 2019). As such one adopted a qualitative research approach because it captured the feelings of the respondents.
Primary Data
Primary data is collected when the researcher notes what actually happened or what was actually said at the time. Flicker (2015) postulates that primary data is gathered by the researcher from start to finish, directly from respondents. It can be described as firsthand information and is original in nature. Interviews were the tools used to generate primary data. Silverman (2016) also states the advantages of primary data which include less likelihood of error because the researcher is gathering from original sources. Data is also unbiased and it provides the researcher with more control in data collection.
Interviews
Quinlan et al (2019) define an interview as a data gathering technique in which respondents are asked questions to discover their views about a particular subject. Personal interviews were used in this research. The interview questions consisted of both structured and unstructured questions. Unstructured questions helped to get comprehensive answers from the interviewed managers. They also helped the interviewed managers to fully express their views on employee motivation at the workplace. Interviews are generally defined as purposeful discussions between two or more parties (Silverman, 2016). Face to face interviews was used in probing and soliciting data for the research. The interviews gave an opportunity for getting instant responses and the chance for deeper inquiries or clarifications on the responses.
Silverman (2016) states that semi-structured interviews are highly suitable for researches based on case studies. The researcher used semi-structured interviews which give freedom to deviate from prepared questions if it serves to provide more information. These interviews are follow-ups to the questionnaires issued to the management, employees and former employees. As such, more time will be given to extracting as much information as possible to the participants.
Firstly, interviews are flexible because questions can be adjusted according to the situation and research requirements and needs. Interviews also allow the researcher to pick up on non-verbal communication elements that provide deeper knowledge and answers for the researcher (Kumar, 2019). Interviews also Flexibility – the interview has the opportunity to adjust questions on assessment of the subject and the total situation in the direction that suits the requirements of the research. Interviews also allow both parties to build a rapport which often leads to more understanding and information being shared.
Interviews are however expensive and time-consuming (Kumar, 2019). Setting up appointments can be a stressful task with management often proving to be busy and having to reschedule at other times plus the phone costs that came with that. Traveling expenses to meet with participants were also high.
The interviews consisted of two parts. Firstly the researcher will ask the respondent a question and the response given by the interviewee determined the direction of the interview. Interviews were used for collecting data in this study because they give room for probing questions on responses that need further explanation. Questions which interviewees did not understand were explained by the interviewer during the interview. Interviews were also important in this study because the researcher had control of the interviewee. This is because he could determine the direction of the interview from the responses given by the respondents. On the other hand, some of the interviewees in the research were affected by stage fright. However, the researcher continued to use the interviews because the advantages seemed to outweigh the disadvantages. Thus the use of both questionnaires and interviews helped in eliminating weakness associated with each data collection technique.
Target Population
A target population is a group of people that contain the information required by a researcher and of which inference will be made (Quinlan et al, 2019). Flicker (2015) adds that the individuals have similar characteristics according to the researchers sampling criteria and states that the target population has the information needed by the researcher.
Sample
Kumar (2019) defines sampling as a process in which respondents are chosen. Silverman (2016) postulates that a sample is a group of individual elements selected from a research population as its representation. All attributes of the research population must be contained in the sample. According to McCusker and Gunaydin (2015), a sample must be 30% or more of the research population. A sample allows the researcher to save time and money that would have been expended if the whole research population was to be used.
Ethical Considerations
Research ethics outlines that every researcher is held by a moral code that they should be committed too (Silverman, 2016). The researcher upheld the ethical guidelines during the study. The researcher sought consent from all respondents and upheld their desire for anonymity. Confidentiality was viewed by the researcher as very important by the researcher. Nothing was given to other organizations or the general public. The researcher also put all stops to ensuring that the findings were reported truthfully. Permission was sought from all authorities for data collection within the organizations prior to the researcher starting. Also, it was necessary to conduct the study in such a way that participant involvement caused no/minimal disruption to the everyday operations of the respondents and organizations. The researcher took into account the possible harm that could be done not only to individuals but also to organizations throughout the research and employed preventative measures. Raw data records would be availed to ensure other researchers can verify the contents of this study.
Data Analysis
The analysis of data comprised of descriptive statistics, which catered for the analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data that was collected. Data collected from the various respondents were carefully examined for the purposes of presenting data. Tables and Pie Charts were utilized for this purpose because they serve as a clear and concise way of data presentation (Adams et al., 2008).
The researcher struck a balance between data and theoretical commentary in order to provide a clearer meaning of the data according to Flick (2015). This allowed results to be clearly explained using commentary, percentages, graphs, and tables. These, in turn, allowed for ease in comparing the data

Research Findings
The majority of barriers were found to be situational. This is mainly a family and work related issues, such as child care, busy work schedules, lack of support from employers and families. We know that restrictions are on the center. It comes from the institutional side, including policies and practices related to adult learners. This could be a simple plan, a tight walk, a lack of proper tuition, or a lack of funding for higher tuition fees. Temperature barriers may be related to a student’s attitude such as low self-esteem, health-related issues, or a desire to learn more, and poor academic performance. This is due to limited language and numerical skills. Some religious traditions and beliefs impose barriers to adult learning known as social and economic barriers. With these barriers, adult learners get better scores than regular students. As a result, employers, educational institutions, and students themselves are trying to reduce barriers to adult learning.

References
Falasca, M., 2011. Barriers to adult learning: Bridging the gap. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 51(3), pp.583-590.
Flynn, S., Brown, J., Johnson, A. and Rodger, S., 2011. Barriers to education for the marginalized adult learner. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 57(1), pp.43-58.
Osam, E.K., Bergman, M. and Cumberland, D.M., 2017. An integrative literature review on the barriers impacting adult learners’ return to college. Adult Learning, 28(2), pp.54-60.
Preece, J., 2018. Combating social exclusion in university adult education. Routledge.
Roosmaa, E.L. and Saar, E., 2017. Adults who do not want to participate in learning: A cross-national European analysis of their perceived barriers. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 36(3), pp.254-277.
Kitiashvili, A. and Tasker, P.B., 2016. The relationship between attitudes, motives and participation of adults in continuing education: The case of Georgia. Int J Res Rev Educ, 3, pp.13-21.
Wang, R., De Donder, L., De Backer, F., Shihua, L., Honghui, P., Thomas, V., Vanslambrouck, S. and Lombaerts, K., 2016. Back to school in later life: Older Chinese adults’ perspectives on learning participation barriers. Educational Gerontology, 42(9), pp.646-659.
Flick, U., 2015. Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. Sage.
Kumar, R., 2019. Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners. Sage Publications Limited.
McCusker, K. and Gunaydin, S., 2015. Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion, 30(7), pp.537-542.
Quinlan, C., Babin, B., Carr, J. and Griffin, M., 2019. Business research methods. South Western Cengage.
Silverman, D. ed., 2016. Qualitative research. Sage.

 

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