Childhood and Adolescent Abuse is associated with a wide variety of adverse psychological and health outcomes. Discuss

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Childhood and Adolescent Abuse is associated with a wide variety of adverse psychological and health outcomes. Discuss

Introduction
Children who are abused and neglected have a significantly higher risk of mental health than children who grow up in stable families. Multiple complexities arise in supporting the needs of these vulnerable children: complex family situations; the need to balance the goals of protecting children and strengthening family relationships; and the participation of many actors from biological families to encourage parents to litigate staff with child mental health professionals.
Physical abuse in infants and young children can lead to brain dysfunction (Robinson, 2019) and sometimes to death. Most victims of violence and neglect are under 5 years old. In 1991, about 1,383 children died of violence or neglect; 64% of these deaths were attributed to abuse and 36% to negligence (Parish et al., 2017). In fact, the number of deaths from violence and neglect can be much higher, as deaths are often categorized into reports of child deaths (Albert, 2017).
There is no need to hit a child’s head to suffer brain damage. Robinson (2019) indicated that babies who vigorously shake their limbs or shoulders may have intracranial hemorrhage and an eye with no evidence of external head injury. Thus, early neglect and physical abuse have devastating consequences for their small victims.
Neglected cases can occur at any stage of a child’s development, but are usually related to childhood, when they are most likely to be discovered by health professionals, teachers and child protection workers. One form of child neglect is associated with inorganic failure to deliver babies. Physical growth deficiency in these babies cannot be measured by objective measures of weight and height (Feifer, 2017). Neglect is often suspected when these babies show significant weight gain after hospitalization or evacuation of children in the family. Deprivation of a dwarf, a medical term used for low-growing children who are physically
Growth is impaired due to nutritional needs, is another type of child neglect associated with some young children. Even after diagnosis and treatment, the psychological consequences of emotional neglect persist. Robinson (2019) found that young adolescents who were diagnosed as inflexible were opposed and hostile. Feifer (2017) notes that the separation of factors that trigger unstructured failures in children’s growth and neglect must be differentiated from the factors that maintain this behavior. During the early periods of neglect, the child may exhibit stressful behavior in the form of problems with childbirth, irritability, or lack of social responsiveness, which imposes increasing demands on parental care (Parish et al., 2017). In some cases, nutritional deficits, coupled with increased maternal separation, trigger “a vicious circle of accumulated psychological risk” (Albert, 2017). Finally, a parent may begin to perceive the child as silent, pathological, or ineffective, a perception not shared by others who monitor the child. In the absence of growth indicators of organic blood loss or dwarfism, the clinical diagnosis of pediatric negligence is somewhat difficult. Feifer (2017) described some nonspecific behavioral symptoms due to an organic failure to thrive, including a smile, a blank face, an abomination of the eyes, self-stimulating behavior, intolerance to habits, low activity, and curvaceous hip.
Abuse and neglect can cause serious health problems that can adversely affect children’s development and have uncontrollable lasting consequences. Initial studies of children with violent abuse confirmed significant deficiencies such as central nervous system damage, physical defects, growth and retardation, and severe speech problems (Robinson, 2019). Child victims of physical abuse have been found to have milder neurological disease, severe physical injury and skin pain and scarring than their peers. Sexually abused children and some physically neglected children showed greater sexual orientation and signs of sexual abuse. Particularly serious biological consequences of sexual violence in children and adolescents are the risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, puberty and syphilis.
Mental and language deficits have been clinically identified in abused children (Albert, 2017). Abused and neglected children, with no evidence of neurological impairment, also showed delayed cognitive development, especially in the field of verbal intelligence. Some studies have found impaired cognitive activity and intellectual impairment in abused children. However, others have not discerned cognitive and intellectual actions, language skills, or verbal ability. Successful school performance (eg, poor grades, poor standardized grades, and frequent retention in class) is a fairly consistent finding in studies of abused and neglected children, with neglected most affected children. Results for child victims of sexual abuse are inconsistent.
Jung et al (2015) found that 4-year-olds with physical injuries exhibited an abnormal pattern of social information processing related to aggressive behavior at 5 years of age. Physically injured children (compared to unethically injured children) were significantly less aware of social suggestions, hostile intent, and less able to manage personal problems. They explain the potential lack of abused and neglected children, suggesting that physical violence affects the development of social information patterns that, in turn, lead to long-term aggressive behavior. The experience of serious physical harm is related to “acquiring a set of biased and deficient patterns to process information about social provocations”.
Differences in cognitive and cognitive consequences of child abuse may be associated with failure to manage important variables such as social and economic conditions and lack of statistical power in small samples. Other possible explanations for inconsistencies in this literature are the tendency of previous studies to bring together different types of maladministration (which may mask different consequences associated with a particular type of child abuse) or the involvement of children with neurological disorders (which may be significant). impact on cognitive and cognitive performance). Recent studies have excluded children with obvious neurological impairment. However, abuse, especially early treatment, can cause central nervous system damage that will cause future cognitive impairment (Robinson, 2019).
Some studies suggest that certain signs of significant neglect (such as when a child experiences dehydration, diarrhea, or malnutrition without proper care) may lead to developmental delays, attention deficits, poorer social skills, and less emotional stability. The consequences of physical abuse in children included impairments in the development of permanent attachment to adult caregivers in infants and very young children (Albert, 2017). Children who are poorly connected run the risk of lowering self-esteem and therefore consider themselves more negative than untreated children. In some studies, school-age victims of physical abuse showed lower self-esteem because of self-report and measures to denounce parents, but other studies found no difference.
The consequences of negligent behavior can be particularly severe and severe in the early stages of child development. Feifer (2017) notes that maternal separation and lack of supply can hinder the development of relationship formation and the relationship between the child and the parents, affecting the child’s neglected expectations regarding supply, influence, problem solving, relationships. social skills and ability to deal with the child. new or stressful situations. Jung et al (2015) provided striking cultural evidence of the negative consequences of parental neglect and the rejection of children’s self-esteem and emotional stability.
In a prospective study of a qualitative selection of risk care, Garbarino (2017) showed a group of mothers who were psychologically inaccessible to their babies. These mothers were separated and did not respond to their children’s offerings because of care and attention. The children in this group were compared to the groups of physical abuse, neglect, oral rejection and control of the same risk sample. Using various measures of different conditions and outcomes that were made to assess significant mental retardation at each age, the results indicated that children in all malnourished groups were malfunctioning. Over time, their activities deteriorated. There was a large similar pattern of development between treatment groups, but there were also several notable memories.
Almost all children in this study, where mothers were psychologically unavailable, had anxiety at 18 months of age, most of them classified as anti-anxiety (86%). These children were seen with their mothers in trouble-free conditions after 24 months and with teaching tasks at 42 months and were angry, incomplete, without perseverance and with little positive effect. One of the most dramatic results for these children was a nearly 40-point drop in performance on Bayley’s 9- to 24-month infant developmental scales. In the kindergarten classroom, these children had diverse and serious behavioral problems.
Studies have reported evidence of other psychosocial problems in young children. There was a higher incidence of suicide attempts and mutilation reported in clinical samples (Green, 1978). Comparative studies of non-abused children indicate increased depression, hopelessness, and reduced self-esteem in physically abused children. More emotional distress has also been identified in older abused children (Feifer, 2017). In a recent study involving pre-myocardial infarction (7-12 years), Kaufman (1991) found an excessive number of abused children and met the diagnostic criteria for one of the major traumatic disorders.
No relationship has been demonstrated between the behavior of parents who have emotionally or psychologically destructive consequences for their children. Although verbal or symbolic violence designed to terrorize or intimidate a child (such as constantly lowering or destroying a favorite item or pet) is associated with serious long-term consequences (Robinson, 2019), the processes that children use to interpretively attack or neglect is misunderstood. Lack of age-appropriate care (such as parenting and education), cognitive stimulation, or expectation of success can also have a major psychological impact, especially when this neglect occurs during important periods of child and adolescent development.
Inappropriate sexual behaviors, such as frequent and manifest self-aggravation, inappropriate sexual openings against other children and adults, and acting and imagining with sexual content, are often cited as symptoms of sexual violence in studies comparing sexual abuse or unused children. In six studies on preschool sexual violence (those most likely to exhibit these symptoms), approximately 35% of child abuse cases showed this behavior. Sexual abuse has also sometimes been associated with the onset of sexual acts in midlife. Reported frequency varies greatly due to different samples, measuring instruments and definitions of result behavior. The lowest estimates (7%) were based on a large study that included many successful and older children. In a recent review of studies reporting quantitative findings on the impact of sexual violence on minors, Jung et al (2015) found that child victims of sexual abuse were often symptomatic, but their peers were not abused by fear, nightmares, generalized traumatic stress disorder, withdrawal behavior, mental illness, cruelty, neglect, sexual misconduct, misbehavior, regressive behavior, general behavioral problems and self-injurious behavior. Assessments of sexual violence in children diagnosed to meet DSM-III-R conditions for traumatic stress disorder range from 21% to 48% (Garbarino, 2017).

Conclusion
It is important for all of us to protect children and especially when there are so many tragic adversities that can have a major impact on children’s lives. The most detrimental effects on children and adolescents are experiences of abuse, neglect and violence, which unfortunately prevail in more circumstances than expected. The experience of these traumas is specifically linked to the negative consequences of mental health in childhood and adulthood. The cumulative and multifaceted experience improves children’s sensitivity. Emotional and behavioral consequences can affect development, relationships, learning, and the future. Protecting children from such bad experiences is important to their future and to us as a community. Protecting them from these most harmful and harmful experiences is the responsibility of all those who interact with children and families.

References
Robinson, Y., 2019. Child Abuse: Types and Emergent Issues. In Child Abuse and Neglect (pp. 3-22). Academic Press.
Parrish, J.W., Schnitzer, P.G., Lanier, P., Shanahan, M.E., Daniels, J.L. and Marshall, S.W., 2017. Classification of maltreatment-related mortality by Child Death Review teams: How reliable are they?. Child abuse & neglect, 67, pp.362-370.
Albert, V., 2017. From child abuse to permanency planning: Child welfare services pathways and placements. Routledge.
Feifer, A., 2017. Abuse or neglect as cause for disability. International Journal of Child Health and Human Development, 10(3), pp.253-265.
Jung, H., Herrenkohl, T.I., Lee, J.O., Klika, J.B. and Skinner, M.L., 2015. Effects of physical and emotional child abuse and its chronicity on crime into adulthood. Violence and victims, 30(6), pp.1004-1018.
Garbarino, J., 2017. The consequences of child maltreatment: Biosocial and ecological issues. Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions—Foundations of human behavior, pp.65-76.

 

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